Agriculture, the World Population, Global Climate Change and Natural Resources in the Context of Increased Food Insecurity: A Romanian Academic Approach
Part I – Agronomic Research, Demographic Explosion and Food Safety (Pages: 35-45)
Department of Food Sciences at the Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract: This article is a warning signal that attempts to treat in two distinct parts the factors determining the food insecurity of the world population in an academic approach but without concrete results of scientific research. In this first part it is highlighted the fundamental role of agricultural research in ensuring food security in the context of a significant increase in world population. The article begins with introductory notions that briefly examine the main current global phenomena such as quasi exponential increase of world population, the shortfall of cereal crops, the new geopolitics of food, the rising food prices which are an attack on food security and the biding nature of securing daily access to food for everyone on the planet. Further there are defined and characterized the concepts of food security and nutrition security. The analysed issues address: the importance of conservative agriculture in order to prevent food insecurity, new ways to improve plants in order to adapt to the environment and to the scientific zootechnical research which has to be adapted to the new climate changes and the importance of water resources and green biotechnologies for food security. It is reviewed the Europe 2020 strategy on food security. The author presentes his conclusions through two original diagrams; the first diagram suggests that the attention of the world policy-makers, both continental and national ones, should be directed to the major problems of the planet that are organically related to the development inside the environment in the next period (regarding energy, water resources, biodiversity, climate, pollution and interactions between man and nature); the second diagram refers to the world ecological crisis regarding: the damage incurred to theagricultural production and drinking water resources, the reduction of fishery and aquatic resources, the emphasizing of deforestation, the increased discharge of toxic wastes and, not least, the accelerating climate change. All that creates the need to promote effective and courageous green energies and (bio)green technologies as a viable alternative to save mankind. It is stressed that the “green” technical-scientific progress, through its innovative and unconventional nature, is only a strictly necessary condition, but not sufficient in saving the planet; this fight needs the establishment of a professional, academic and scientific solidarity that requires also support in the form of the entire human solidarity; through their synergetic action, the two types of solidarity should gradually generate a national political solidarity, to further become a continental one and, in the near future, a world political solidarity to ensure real conditions for saving the planet.
Keywords: Earth, Human population, Food, Climate change, Food security.