Does the Process for Production Nanoparticulate ZnO Play a Role in its Ecotoxicity? (Pages: 1-12)
Hudson C. Polonini1, Nádia R.B. Raposo1, Humberto M. Brandão2, Cauê Ribeiro3,Claude Yéprémian4, Alain Couté4, Yann Sivry5 and Roberta Brayner6
1Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Núcleo de Pesquisa e Inovação em Ciências da Saúde (NUPICS), Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, s/n, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, Brasil; 2Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa Gado de Leite), 36038-330, Juiz de Fora, Brasil; 3Embrapa Instrumentação Agropecuária, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, 13560-970, São Carlos, Brasil; 4Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, UMR 7245 CNRS-MNHN Molécules de Communication et Adaptation des Micro-organismes, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris, France; 5Université Paris Diderot, Institute de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR 7154, CNRS, 1 rue Jussieu, F-75238 Paris, France and 6Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et Dynamique des Systèmes (ITODYS), UMR 7086, CNRS, 15 rue Jean de Baïf, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France.
Abstract: The interaction between live organisms and nanosized particles has become a current focus in toxicology. The aims of the present work are: (i) to assess the zinc oxide (ZnO) toxicity and its mechanisms into the aquatic environment, using the green algae Chlorella vulgaris as biological indicator; (ii) to compare the ZnO behavior and toxic profile in synthetic (Bold’s Basal) and natural (Seine River Water, SRW) culture media; and (iii) to address whether the obtaining route is an issue in ZnO particles toxicity or not. Responses such as growth inhibition, cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) content and photosynthetic efficiency were evaluated. The main conclusions are: (i) nanoparticulate ZnO have an statistically significant toxic effect on C. vulgaris growth since the lower concentration tested (1ppm), that seems to be mediated by a induced oxidative stress (probably due to extensive release of Zn2+ into the media); (ii) the ZnO behavior in synthetic and natural culture media were statistically similar, although the toxic effects were more pronounced in SRW; and (iii) the production process does not seem to be an issue in ZnO nanoparticles toxicity since all tested particles produced significant effects on microalgae growth.
Keywords: Zinc oxide, Seine river water, Ecotoxicology, Characterization, Nanotechnology.